Thermal Simulation and Analysis of Cell Injury in Cryosurgery of Human Liver Cancer Ablation


  • Dr. Raghda Alakhras Israa University
  • Dr. Mohamed Elnaggar Palestine Technical College - Deir El-Balah
  • Dr. Mohammed Alnahhal Israa University- Gaza



Cryosurgery, Liver Cancer, Direct Cell Injury, Intracellular Ice Crystal, Cryotherapy, Cancer Treatment, ANSYS Software


Our study investigates the implementation of cryosurgery for human liver cancer ablation. Cancer ablation using low-temperature refrigeration technique is a recent and challenging technique and may be recommended for patients parallel with other medication systems, or for patients who experience health complications undergoing other cancer medications. Specifically, in this study, a model consisting of human liver cancer tissues subjected to low-temperature refrigeration through a cryogenic probe is thermally simulated and analyzed using ANSYS software. The liver cancerous tissue was assumed to be 0.025 m in length, 0.025 m in width and 0.005 m in depth. The model simulations were performed at cryoprobe tip temperatures of – 100 oC and – 200oC to analog the real clinical implementation of the technique. The temperature distributions across the cancerous liver tissue are obtained in 8 locations. Based on the present thermal analysis the extension of cooling, freezing, and thawing stages are defined and suggested to be estimated prior the implementation of cryotherapy as they can be used to identify the thermal history parameters responsible for obtaining complete cell injury. In addition, intracellular ice crystals to the formation mechanism is studied and their formation is may be subjected to an influence of thermodynamic properties in the microscopic domain besides the thermal history parameters such as cooling rate, cryoprobe tip temperature in relation to the extent of cooling, freezing and thawing stages.


Keywords: Cryosurgery; Liver Cancer; Direct Cell Injury; Intracellular Ice Crystal; Cryotherapy; Cancer Treatment; ANSYS Software.

Author Biographies

Dr. Raghda Alakhras , Israa University

Department of Medicine Laboratory, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Israa University- Gaza, Gaza 1273, Palestine. E-mail:

Dr. Mohamed Elnaggar, Palestine Technical College - Deir El-Balah

Department of Engineering Profession, Palestine Technical College - Deir El-Balah, Deir El-Balah 6037, Palestine. E-mail:

Dr. Mohammed Alnahhal, Israa University- Gaza

Department of Engineering - Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, Israa University- Gaza, Gaza 1273, Palestine. Email:




How to Cite

Alakhras , R. ., Elnaggar, M. ., & Alnahhal, M. . (2022). Thermal Simulation and Analysis of Cell Injury in Cryosurgery of Human Liver Cancer Ablation. The Journal of Natural Sciences, 24(01), 1–23.