The Journal of Natural Sciences 2023-02-20T12:58:19+00:00 Scientific Rersearch Open Journal Systems <p style="direction: ltr;"><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">Al-Aqsa University Journal is issued by the Deanship of Scientific Research at Al-Aqsa University - Palestine.</span></p> <p style="direction: ltr;"><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">The first four volumes were issued under the name of the Journal of the College of Education, then the name was changed to the Journal of Al-Aqsa University in the fifth volume, which was issued in January 2001, and included research in the humanities, natural and applied sciences.</span></p> <p style="direction: ltr;"><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">Starting with the eighth volume in 2004, the magazine was separated into the Journal of Al-Aqsa University - the Journal of Human Sciences and the Journal of Al-Aqsa University - the Journal of Natural Sciences.</span></p> <p style="direction: ltr;">International Standard No. Al-Aqsa University Journal - Journal of Natural Sciences ( ISSN 2070-3155 (Print), ISSN 2521-893X (Online)</p> <p style="direction: ltr;"><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">Arab Impact Factor Journal of Al-Aqsa University - Journal of Natural Sciences 2017 </span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">(AIF) 2,1</span></p> Recent Trends of Non-indigenous Species of Marine Zoobenthos and Macroalgae in the Syrian marine environment (Latakia Coast) 2023-02-05T07:59:12+00:00 Izdihar Ammar Hadeel Araj <p>A Horizon Scanning (HS) was conducted to investigate the Non-indigenous Species belonging to the phytobenthic and zoobenthic communities and count the number of alien species in each group of Macrophytes, Mollusca, Crustacea, Echinodermata, Polychaeta, and Ascidiacea. as well as studying the case of these alien species in the Syrian marine environment and their potential impacts. 20 sampling cruises were carried out during the three years 2019, 2020 and 2021, in the study sites north and south of Latakia, which included free diving in some areas to a depth of 10 m. The results showed an increase in the number and abundance of non- indigenous species in the study areas, This (this) increase plays its role in influencing the structure and functions of the ecosystem. It also showed a high percentage of non-native species of benthic fauna, reaching 15.73% of the total number of documented species on the Syrian coast. The study also shows an increase in the percentage of alien species of Macrophytes, reaching 18.49%.</p> 2023-02-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 On graded multiplication modules 2023-02-05T08:59:07+00:00 Mohammad Hamoda Khaldoun Al-Zoubi <p>In this paper, we introduce the concept of graded multiplication modules which are a generalization of graded multiplication modules.&nbsp; Several results concerning graded multiplication modules are proved. We study graded prime submodules in graded multiplication modules. Also, we generalize prime avoidance lemma for multiplication modules to graded multiplication modules. We characterize graded multiplication modules in terms of graded multiplication modules.</p> 2023-02-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 A Proposed Biased Regression Estimator for Treating the Existence of Autocorrelation and Multicollinearity 2023-02-05T11:01:23+00:00 Issam Dawoud <p>This study aims at suggesting a biased regression estimator for treating both the autocorrelation between errors and the multicollinearity among the explanatory variables together. The properties of the suggested generalized biased (GB) estimator are stated, and its performance is investigated using the mean square error criterion over the generalized least squares estimator, the generalized ridge estimator, and the generalized Liu estimator. Also, the estimators for the two parameters k and d of the suggested GB estimator and the others are selected. A massive study of simulation is performed, and the results indicate that the suggested GB estimator performed well compared to the other generalized estimators under specific conditions. Finally, two real datasets are used to explain these findings.</p> 2023-02-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 تصميم عامل وتحسين مسحوق بذور ثمر الورد كمخثر طبيعي لمياه الصرف الصناعي 2023-02-16T11:47:49+00:00 محمد أبو جزر محمد أبو عودة <p>تهدف هذه الدراسة إلى فحص كفاءة مسحوق بذور ثمر الورد لمعالجة المياه العادمة الخارجة من مصنع الحديد والصلب ولإثبات جدوى استخدام مسحوق بذور ثمر الورد في معالجة العادمة الخارجة مصنع الحديد والصلب وتحسين المعايير التشغيلية. باستخدام 1 جم / لتر من ثمر الورد كعامل تحكم، ودرجة الرقم الهيدروجيني، ووقت الاستقرار، تم استخدام منهجية سطح الاستجابة (RSM)، وهو تصميم تجريبي إحصائي، لتحسين COD وNH<sub>3</sub>-N وكفاءة النسبة المئوية لإزالة المعادن الثقيلة. كان الحد الأقصى لإزالة COD واللون وNH<sub>3</sub>-N وFe وMn وAl وCu وNi عند الرقم الهيدروجيني 8 87.1٪ و78.1٪ و72.1٪ و93.2٪ و94.8٪ و97.1٪ و81.3٪ و91.7٪ على التوالي. باستثناء Fe (0.0170)، (Mn (0.0021، وCu (0.0024)، تم تحديد النماذج التربيعية للمعلمات المحددة لتكون ذات دلالة إحصائية (&lt;0.001). كشفت نتائج الدراسة أن مسحوق ثمر الورد يمكن استخدامه كمخثر طبيعي لمعالجة مياه الصرف الصحي الناتجة عن صناعات الحديد والصلب.</p> 2023-02-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Evaluation of spectral indices for characterizing Urban Cool Island during the dry season from Landsat8; a hot semi-arid climate case study of the Gaza Strip. 2023-02-20T12:58:19+00:00 Wissam Issa <p>Several Spectral Remote Sensing Indices have been widely investigated for characterizing the spatial patterns of urban heat islands (UHI) phenomenon commonly found in temperate and subtropical climate regions. However, those studies were and still are few in evaluating these indicators in hot and semi-arid climatic regions such as the Gaza Strip. A few studies have shown that this phenomenon occurs in reverse in hot and semi-arid regions, where it is called the urban cool island (UCI) phenomenon. The spectral characteristics of land covers in the hot arid and semi-arid climate regions have a different response to land surface temperatures (LST) from other climatic regions. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to identify and characterize the UCI using spectral indices (SIs) during a dry season over the hot arid, and semi-arid climate area of the Gaza Strip.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>SIs have become readily available and are considered promising for characterizing the spectral and thermal patterns of urban and non-urban areas, whereas the thermal spatial pattern can be used later as inputs in many urban studies and climatic modeling applications. The aims of this study are; (1) to identify the presence of the UCI phenomenon over the hot arid and semi-arid climate area of the Gaza Strip; (2) to evaluate 21 SIs (SIs' full names mentioned in table 2) including; ABEI, BAEI, BI, BRBA, BSI, BUI, DBSI, ENBI, IBI, I_imp, MSAVI2, NBI, NBUI, NDBI, NDSI, NDVI, SAVI, UI, VgNIR-BI, VrNIR-BI, and VIBI for characterizing the UCI pattern over the Gaza Strip. The spatial analysis was applied in two land cover scenarios; including the “All” classes scenario (urban, all vegetation types, bare soil, and sand), and the “urban” class. The LST (100 m) and spectral indices (30 m) are derived from Landsat 8 images of summer.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The results of this research provided the existence of the UCI phenomenon in the hot arid and semi-arid climate area of the Gaza Strip. The statistical relationship between SIs and UCI is best-described using the second-order polynomial fit, within the "All" class are the following SIs; DBSI (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.58), ABEI (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.52), BSI (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.50), and BAEI (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.44), whilst within the "urban" class are the following SIs; MSAVI2 (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.50), P_imp (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.40), ABEI (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.33), and NBI (R<sup>2</sup>= 0.33).</p> 2023-02-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023